The Nubians persist, that their civilization is older than the Egyptian one and that it is from Nubia that the Egyptian culture comes from. Egyptians, and later the Greeks, The Romans and Arabs wrote down their history and the history of their contacts with Nubia, and the Nubians did not. For this reason, information about them can only be obtained from the history of their neighbors and archaeological excavations. The traditional name of this land in ancient Egypt is Ta-Seti -Tuk's country. There were other things too: Of the netjet – Land of the Gods or Ta-Nehesy – The country of the Nubians. Northern part of Nubia - Lower Nubia – The Egyptians called Uauat, they also named their neighbors Nubt after the product most frequently imported from the South – gold. Particular Nubian lands were called Kush, Medzaj.
During the Second Dynasty, the Buhen Fortress was built on the southern border, guarding the copper mine.
During the times of Cheops, diorites for statues were brought from the area west of Toszka. During the 4th Dynasty, regular contacts were established with the areas between the 1st and 2nd Cataracts and the rest of Egypt. The pharaohs sent military and trade expeditions to Nubia for gold, Ivory, mirrę, incense, ebony and other precious woods, exotic fragrant oils, rubber and resin, leopard and panther skins, monkeys, psy, giraffe, ostriches and their eggs, and also the pygmies. Nubian warriors served in the army. Egyptian military expeditions served to intimidate the enemy and keep him in obedience. After the fall of the Old Kingdom, the country's border shifted to the north. Under the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian influence extended south again, and contacts with the country of Kush, as Nubia was called then, have become regular. In the time of the New Kingdom, the country of Kush was within the limits of Egyptian influence. It was not only political domination, but also civilization. Nubia adapted the Egyptian gods, she created her writing on the basis of Egyptian hieroglyphs, began to build in the Egyptian style. The Egyptians, in turn, valued the Nubian mercenaries, as evidenced by the ancient Egyptian name of the policeman (medjaj), denoting a Nubian of the Medja tribe, serving in the Egyptian Police.
In the Third Interim Period and the Late Period, Egypt split into competing kingdoms, and then came the time of the Kushites. W 747 r. p.n.e. the Nubian king of Napata, Pie (Pianchy), he captured Thebes and united the country under one scepter. Through the past 100 years, until the Assyrian invasion of 664 r. p.n.e., Egypt and Nubia were ruled by the XXV dynasty, known as the Nubian or Kushite dynasty. Then the paths of Egypt and Nubia parted for good.
Kingdoms arose in the south (e.g.. Meroe), which continued the Egyptian-Nubian way of life. They built pyramids for rulers, they worshiped the Egyptian-Nubian gods and repelled the Roman invasion. Ok. 250 r. neither. the Noba tribes came. The kingdom of Ballan was established, called by the Romans Nobatea (Treatą). At that time, there were three small state organisms: Nobatia with the capital of Pachorach (It does), Makuria with the capital in Dongola and southern Aloda with the capital in Soba (Chartum). W IV w. Christianity came here in two varieties - monophysical (Coptic Church) and Catholic. W VII w. Makuria grew into a local power, though it was the period of the invasion of Islam. The following centuries were periods of peace and wars between Christian Nubia and the Arab conquerors of Egypt. Islam displaced Christianity. Egypt took the area of Dongola, and in the centuries that followed, expeditions moved the border south. W XIX w. all of northern Nubia was under the control of Mohammad Ali, who sent punitive expeditions led by his son Ibrahim, captive men, conscripted into the Egyptian army. During the Mahdi uprising, Nubia, split between Egypt and Sudan, was attached to an Anglo-Egyptian condominium.
Nubian weddings are celebrated with great pomp. The ceremonies can go as far as 40 days, and everything is filled with special rituals. According to tradition, the groom offers, among others. costumes for the mother and sisters of the bride. They are brought on camels covered with colored silk bedspreads and decorated with jewelery. During the wedding, the fiance wears rich clothes, and in his belt he clogs a dagger and a whip. Ceremonies usually take place in the summer. After the wedding, the week-long wedding celebrations begin.
Outside the wedding season, Nubians willingly come to the performances of the Nubian Folk Group, held at the Aswan Palace of Culture (tel.097/2313391; tickets before the show). Every evening from October to March except Friday (and Ramadan) between 21.30 a 23.00 you can see a performance depicting rural life, fragments of a Nubian wedding and folk dances. Some restaurants, e.g.. Nubian Restaurant(island of Issa, south of Elephantine; 55 EGP; no drinks), they organize folklore shows combined with dinner. Usually, on cruise ships mooring in Aswan, so-called. Nubian evening.
Ethnic or folklore inspired music is now very popular all over the world. Nubian music also joins this trend. Nubians play traditional instruments, such as thigh (pear-shaped guitar) i duff (flat drum). Many of the songs come from Sudan. This music intertwines the influences of the Sudanese and Egyptian traditions.
Women may encounter a different aspect of Nubian culture. The henna painting of patterns on the skin is widespread throughout North Africa. Nubians decorate their bodies in this way for the wedding ceremony. Tourists, who want to decorate themselves, they can do it in Nubian tourist villages around Aswan.
One of the tourist attractions is a trip to a Nubian village. In the vicinity of Aswan, on the west bank, there are several of them: one is on the opposite side of town (closer), the second one near the island of Sehel (further). The village was built after Nubia was flooded with water, but the traditionalism of its inhabitants guarantees, that the visit has nothing to do with the Cepeli show. You can see many types of mud brick houses painted in different colors. Nubian houses are decorated with laid tiles, window braids and often toothed cornices, reminiscent of African art. During such a stay, you can try a traditional drink made of hibiscus flowers (karkadeh) or mint tea, meet the villagers and see their homes.