The Valley of the Queens

This place is called Biban al-Harim in Arabic, Biban al-Sultanat, Biban al-Malikat (Beauty Gates, Gates of Women or Gates of Queens). They do not reflect reality, because in the valley, belonging to the Theban necropolis, not only the queens and wives of the 19th and 20th dynasty rulers were buried (XTV-XX w. p.n.^), but also their children, including almost adult princes, members of royal families from the late seventeenth and early eighteenth dynasty and high court dignitaries from the times before the nineteenth dynasty.
The ancients called the necropolis Ta-Set-Neferu – The Place of Beauty. The burial ground is about one kilometer northwest of Medinet Habu.
During Ernesto Schiaparelli's excavations (1903-1905) discovered approx. 80 tombs carved into the rocky slope with numerous chambers and corridors, the walls of which are covered with paintings and bas-reliefs. The first grave was QV38, belonging to Queen Satre, consort of Ramesses I.. Several graves are in good condition, but most of it has been destroyed, because they were used as sheep barracks. The best known and undoubtedly the most beautiful is the QV66, tomb of Queen Nefertari. Beautiful decorations have been preserved in several tombs of the princes, like for example. in owned by Amonherchepszef (QV55) i Chaemuaseta (QV44), two sons of Ramesses III. There is also a beautiful tomb of Queen Titi from the 20th Dynasty in the necropolis (QV52) and Paraherunemefa.
In the Valley of the Queens, you can visit three tombs (Titi, Amonherchepszef, Chaemuaset).
Until recently, the tomb of Queen Nefertari was partially accessible, although at a really prohibitive price (4000 USD per group) and only for special guests. But since January 2003 r. even members of the royal family are not officially admitted. There is talk of creating a replica for tourists.

Queen Nefertari's tomb (QV66)

Tomb of Queen Nefertari Meri-en-Mut (The most beautiful, Beloved by Mut), Great Royal Wife of Ramesses II, has been closed for several years due to interior maintenance. The rise in the groundwater level resulted in an increase in the salinity of the walls and the precipitation of salt crystals under the layer of painted plaster. As a result, the walls separate, causing pieces of the paintings to tear off. The work is progressing very slowly, because sometimes the painted plaster needs to be separated from the substrate, record, and then stick it on again. Detailed photographic and film documentation is also prepared. The tomb was discovered in 1904 r. by Ernest Schiaparelli. The beauty of the paintings attracted numerous tourists.
The tomb reflects the position of the queen. Countless epithets define it as the Sweetness of Love, Nice looking, Full of charm. After seeing the paintings, you can be sure of the monarch's charm and its great influence on the ruler. She always kept her husband company, participating in propaganda and religious ceremonies. She was in constant correspondence with the Hittite Queen Puduhepa, nurturing the ties between once-feuding countries.
Its position is confirmed by the temple in Abu Simbel.

Tomb of Amonherchepshep (QV55)

The tomb of Prince Amonherchepszef is the second, after the tomb of Nefertari, the most interesting burial place in the valley. The tomb of Amonherchepshep was discovered in 1903 r. He was completely robbed, but the decoration is in excellent condition. Thanks to the delicacy and stylistic maturity of the relief, the tomb deserves to be called a masterpiece of art of the 20th dynasty.. Steep stairs lead through the first corridor to the vestibule. On the south wall, Ramses III, in a golden chepresz helmet and ceremonial robe, stands between Isis and Thoth, and then – in a classic blue and yellow striped nemesis with son Amonherchepszef before Ptah and Ptah-tawen, Duamutefem, Imset and Isis. The boy is carrying a fan of feathers, that the gods would grant him favor.
On the other side of the vestibule is the Pharaoh with his son in front of Shu, Kebehsenufem, Hapi and Hathor.
Another corridor with the figures of Isis and Nephthys during the njnj ritual leads to the original burial chamber. Horus-Iunmutef leads the king and his son to the sarcophagus chamber. The walls are decorated with chapters 145 i 146 Books of the Dead. Here Ramses III and his son stand before the gatekeepers of the next gates: Iukentim with an ox's head and Kutgetef. In the north, on the opposite wall are Henebrek with the head of a black dog and the ram-headed Semati. Here is the entrance to the unadorned annexe. From the west, the chamber opens onto a small annex without decorations, where the sarcophagus was moved, guarded by the Horus-Behdeti winged disk and the winged royal cartouches.
There was an urn with a fetus in this room, discovered by Schiaparelli (glass case in the burial chamber). Perhaps it is a stillborn baby of the prince. Amonherchepshep was never buried in this tomb.
In the sarcophagus originally belonging to Queen Tauseret, he was found, along with the other sons of Ramesses III, in the tomb of Chancellor Baj (KV13).

Queen Titi's tomb (QV52)

Queen Titi was the wife of one of the kings of the Ramessid dynasty (XX dynastia), but apart from the title and name, nothing is known about her. Her tomb is on the road to the tomb of Amonherchepshep. It is quite damaged, but it has faint murals on a white background. Upon entering the first corridor, you can see numerous texts and titles of the queen. On the eastern wall is the kneeling figure of Maat and the queen in front of Ptah in the chapel, Re-Horachte (the rising sun), Imsetem, Duamutef and Isis.
On the west wall, Titi appears in a similar scene with Thoth, alum (sunset), Step, Kebsenuef and Nephtyda. The queen in a complicated hairstyle is shown as a very young girl, which suggests, that she died young. The doorframe with the winged Maat on the doorframe and the figures of Neit and Selkit lead to the burial chamber – square room with annexes on each side. The scenes painted against a yellow-gold background show the sun bars of Night and Day (south wall).
There are guards on the north wall on both sides of the entrance: jackal and lion (on the left) and Neb-neri oraz Heri-maat (on the right). On the eastern wall, two baboons and a monkey with a bow stand in front of mythological creatures. In the left side annex, the Queen shakes the sistrum in front of the Four Sons of Horus (this scene is reminiscent of Chaemuaset's tomb), while in the right annex at the western wall, Titi stands before the goddess in the form of a tree and Hathor in the form of a cow, the guardian of the West Mountain. The central side annex is decorated with images of the enthroned Osiris, the four sons of Horus – patrons of mummification and gods as mummies. On the ceiling of the chamber you can see delicate white stars on a golden background.