The history of Egypt can be reconstructed from many sources, the most important of which is the Turin Papyrus, founded in the nineteenth dynasty, and the so-called. The Palermo stone, bringing news of events and rulers until the end of Dynasty V. Preserved in the fragments and abstracts of Aigyptiak from approx. 300 r. p.n.e. it is the work of Manetho, priest and historian, which is relying on available to him, and today lost sources, compiled the most complete list of the pharaohs from Menes to Alexander the Great, dividing them into 31 dynasty. Although in many points the correctness of this division is questioned, the overall dynastic backbone was preserved. Egyptian monuments covered with numerous inscriptions spoke after the hieroglyphs were read by J.F. Champolliona: it has been known since then, who and for what erected the mighty buildings. Archaeologists began to support historians, correcting mistakes and adding missing pages of Egyptian history.
Prehistory – When approx. 20 thousand. years BC. the savannas of the later Sahara began to dry up, people migrated to the east, to wetter areas.
This is how they appeared in the valley of the great river, which once a year regularly appeared from the shores. At first, she surprised them with the destructive power of the flood, but soon they understood, that this force can be forced, to make it work for them.
This is how an organized community began to develop in the river valley. The visitors dug the canals, with which they spread water over the fields, they sowed the seed and reaped a bountiful harvest; they also learned about the life-giving role of silt. The division into a fertile valley began to be established, "Black Earth" – Kemet – and barren, a hostile desert, "Red Earth" – Deszuert, which Set ruled, pan burz, death and chaos. Horus ruled over Kemet, protector of people and pharaohs. Sun, the benevolent Re, it illuminated every scrap of fertile land, and dying in the West, was reborn in the East. It was a guarantee of eternal duration and rebirth after death.
The predynastic period – The earliest human settlements in the river valley were discovered near the village of el-Badari, hence they are known as the Badari culture. These people worked the land, they were hunters and miners; they made ceramics and ivory objects, they were also traders, exchanging products for turquoise or rare wood. About 4000 r. p.n.e. a separate culture emerged, called Nakada I., famous for its characteristic ceramics, ivory products and thin-walled vases made of hard stones. Technological progress can be seen in the Nakada II culture – then the first copper tools and glass beads appeared. Previous burial pits slowly became decorated tombs: sign, that the posthumous life was taken care of. Local communities were merging into larger units, which built an extensive irrigation network. Hence, it is not far to the emergence of small state organisms, tending to unite into a larger whole.
Archaic period (early-dynamic)
The river valley became the birthplace of two state organisms, initially loosely uniting many local communities ruled by local chiefs. Two organisms soon solidified, in later centuries called Upper and Lower Egypt: this division functioned for three millennia of the existence of an independent state. In the south, Upper Egypt was born, ruled from Hierakonpolis by a ruler wearing a white crown, and in the north – Lower Egypt, led by the king in the red crown with Buto. The deity of the North was Horus of Behedet, South – Set z Nebit. Finally Narmer, also called Menes, ok. 3100 r. p.n.e. led to the permanent union of both organisms, and the borderline date was the founding of a new capital – Of the White Wall, the later Memphis. The fighting between the two Egyptians was so permanently imprinted in the minds of the people, that they perpetuated this rivalry as the fight between Horus and Set. Horus defeated the god of the south and soon joined all the cults of the falcon gods, becoming the protector of the pharaohs.
Archaic period (ok. 3100-686 r. p.n.e.), also known as the Tynik period, from the city of Tis (Tinnis), where did the rulers of the 1st and 2nd dynasties come from, it's time, when the myth is mixed with the skimpy facts. Only recently some facts, thanks to the work of archaeologists, can be put together into a whole. Can be seen, that the basic elements of Egyptian culture were then formed: letter, canon in art, important religious myths and images. The development of state administration led to the invention of the letter (dynasty times 0). Dead kings were buried in the mastabas, where they were to go through a process of renewal to eternal life, and the corpse was mummified. Together with the rulers of the dynasty 0 and he went into the afterlife voluntarily (?) retinue of servants and officials, to minister to the ruler after death. This practice was abandoned during the Second Dynasty.
Old State (ok. 2686-2181 p.n.e.) and the First Transitional Period (ok. 2181-2133 p.n.e.) – The Old State is a fully formed organism, with an efficient organization, administration, army and religion.
The rulers of the third dynasty ruled in an unprecedented country, for those times, civilization development, of which the step pyramid of King Neczerichet in Saqqara is a symbol, better known under the name of Djoser (XXVII w. p.n.e.), which was built by the rulers of Imhotep, recognized by later generations as a sage and demigod. At that time, Egypt maintained trade contacts with the Middle East, the land of Punt. He imported copper and turquoise from Sinai, and gold from Nubia. Pharaoh, image of god on earth, son of solar Re and incarnation of Horus, with his righteous conduct he barred! country from the disorder and chaos that surrounds it, symbolized by Set, the ruler of the desert.
To provide eternal life to a divine ruler, it was necessary to erect a tomb – pyramid. It was one of the most important tasks of any pharaoh. When he ascended the throne, began work on a peculiar time machine, which would carry him into eternity. The 4th Dynasty became very famous in this work, especially King Snofru, his son Khufu (Cheops) and his successors – Chafre (Chefren) i Menkaure (Mykerinios). The pharaohs quickly expanded the territory of the country through conquests, and the efficient management of the country brought prosperity to the ruler, as well as his people.
During the 5th Dynasty, the cult of Re, whose rulers considered their father, resulted in changes in culture and religion. More pyramids and temples of the solar deity grew up. The first magical-religious Texts of the Pyramids appeared in the pyramids, testimony to the development of Egyptian literature (spells, magic formulas and prayers carved on the walls of the pyramids; they concern the posthumous fate of the pharaoh). Pharaohs were usually buried in necropolises near Memphis (Sakkara, Giza, AbuSir, Dahszur), and mighty masters in the shadow of the royal pyramid. With the development of local communities, the ambitions of the lords in the provinces grew, who were beginning to feel almost as important as the ruler. And although on the outside, the state seemed strong, it could not bear the burden of the calamity of the drought, which fell on the country in the last years of the 6th Dynasty. No strong central authority, chaos in the starving state and the ambitions of the monarchs resulted, that Egypt broke up into warring princes. The defeat was so devastating, that all traditional divisions have disappeared, Eternal values have collapsed, and force and violence began to rule (the royal pyramids were plundered). The previous order has collapsed, great families have fallen, and local dynasties fought each other for power. Finally, the ruler of Herakleopolis took over Central Egypt and founded the DC ruling dynasty of the North. In the south, the princes of Thebes won the competition (XI dynasty). The two Egyptians were competing again, and this time the South won: Mentuhotep II defeated the rulers of Herakleopolis and united the country.