British occupation (1882-1914, 1922-1945) When the patriotic Egyptians opposed the dictates of Europe, The British fired guns at Alexandria (1882) and, on the pretext of restoring peace, they took Egypt. In addition, the Mahdi rebellion broke out in Sudan and southern Egypt (1885), the suppression of which was carried out by the British army under Lord Kitchener. Egypt was administered by the British Consul General, and the state itself – despite the screen government – it was actually a British colony.
During World War I, Turkey supported the German side. The British couldn't let that happen, that Egypt – nominally Turkish province – he did the same, so in 1914 r. they proclaimed the country their protectorate; Fuad became the kedyw, sixth son of Ismail. A nationalist movement developed during the war, and its leader – Saad Zaghloul – demanded autonomy. W 1922 r. Britain abolished the protectorate and recognized Egypt's partial independence. Fuad was crowned king. In recent years, before World War II, the Kingdom of Egypt came closer and closer to full independence.
During the war, Egypt was a strategic point on the British map, because its capture by the Axis powers could have ended in defeat for the Allies, that is why the Afrika Korps of Erwin Rommel was defended with such commitment at Al-Alamajn.
After the end of operations, the Wafd party demanded the withdrawal of British troops from Egyptian territory and reunification with Sudan. Anti-British demonstrations supported by the activities of the Association of Muslim Brothers led to the removal of 1947 r. British troops from the Suez Canal zone. The proclamation of independent Israel sparked outrage in the Arab states, which attacked the new state. The defeat of the Arab armies ended in the treaty signed in 1949 r.; The Gaza Strip remained under Egyptian control.
W 1952 r. a conspiratorial group of Free Officers seized power and forced King Farouk to abdicate. General Naguib became the head of the government. W 1956 r. Colonel Gamal Abdel Naser was elected president of the new republic.
Nasser's rule (1956-1970). The new president has become a key figure in change in the country and the leader of the united Arab world. Nasser's socialism, understood a bit differently than in Europe, placed Egypt at the forefront of Third World countries associated with the anti-colonial movement. The main goal of the country was to break free from the domination of Western states, and it could not be done without the development of the economy. To become independent from the vagaries of the weather and to chase away the specter of hunger forever, common in African countries, it was decided to build a new dam in Aswan – it was supposed not only to provide electricity, but also to provide agriculture with an abundance of water. The US opposition blocked the way to a loan from the World Bank; only the nationalization of the Suez Canal remained. July 1956 r. it was the beginning of the Suez crisis and the war with Israel. The world stood on the brink of another world war, but both powers – USA i ZSRR – contributed to the ceasefire for various reasons. Nasser became a hero of the Arab world, because the canal remained under Egyptian control. The construction of the High Dam has begun, and the president created the United Arab Republic, connecting Egypt and Syria. The USSR took an active part in the political events of the Arab countries, supporting all manifestations of the "way of socialism". The Arab League backed the Palestinian Liberation Organization at the convention in Cairo (1964). W 1967 r. Nasser's troops entered the Sinai Peninsula, and in response, Israel attacked Egyptian troops. During the Six Day War, Israel captured Sinai, The Gaza Strip, West Bank and the Golan Heights. For two years, both countries stood on both sides of the channel, and the USSR was armed by Egypt. In a less-than-favorable political situation, the Nasser government introduced reforms in science and healthcare, as well as agricultural development.
The seized Soviet model of bureaucracy had a negative effect on further state reforms (and still is the ball at the foot of Egypt). The president did not live to see the return of the Aswan Dam. He died of a heart in 1970 r.