Egypt geography

Egypt is located in the northeastern part of Africa, and partly in Asia, separated from each other by the Suez Canal. It neighbors on the south with Sudan, to the west with Libya, to the east with Israel.

The waters of the Red Sea are part of the eastern border, and the northern border is the Mediterranean Sea. The total length of the boundaries is 2689 km, the length of the coast counts 2450 km, the highest point is Catherine Mountain in height 2642 m n.p.m., and the lowest point is Al-Kattara and is 133 m p.p.m.

We have four types of climate in Egypt: Mediterranean on the coast near Alexandria, semi-desert near Cairo, temperate along the Nile Valley and desert to the south .

Regions of Egypt

Egypt is divided into 4 regions: Nile valley and delta, The Western Desert, The Arabian Desert (Eastern) and the Sinai Peninsula. Both deserts form the eastern part of the largest desert in the world – Sahara. Most of the area belongs to the Libyan Basin limited by highlands. In the north it is the Libyan Plateau, to the south-west the Uweinat massif, and to the east the Red Coast.


The only river of Egypt, and at the same time the longest in the world, there is the Nile. Its total length from the source to the mouth in the Mediterranean Sea, is approx. 6671 km. The sources of its two main tributaries lie deep at the heart of the African continent: The White Nile begins in the rivers flowing into Lake Victoria, then it flows north, where in the capital of Sudan, Khartoum, connects to the shorter, the Blue Nile, which is more rich in water. At the junction of these two rivers, you can see the bluish waters of the Blue Nile and the pale green waters of the White Nile.. At Aswan, the Nile cascades, known as the first Nile cataract (in fact, there are them 6). The flow of the Nile is controlled by the Great Aswan Dam, and beyond it, only the dry valleys of periodic and episodic rivers cross the country. There are also artesian waters in Egypt.

The most important region of the country is the Nile valley and delta, which together take up approx. 3% area of ​​the country and are focused 98% inhabitants of the country. The valley is a narrow and fertile strip of land from 2 do 5 km in the southern part and from 15 do 25 km in and around Cairo. At its mouth, the Nile forms a huge delta with an area 22 000 km2, but the area is constantly increasing due to the deposition of material carried by the waters of the river. In this area, the Nile divides into two arms: eastern – Damiette i zachodniąRosette. In addition, lagoon lakes have formed in the delta area (Majrut i Idku) and pickles (Burullus, Manzila).

West and east of the Nile

To the west of the Nile is the Western Desert, which takes up to 60% country area. It is an upland area with a range of hills, sandy plateaus, low progami and zapadliskami. where oases are often found (e.g.. Siwa).

East of the Nile is the Eastern Desert, interesting 25% country area. It is a hard-to-reach deep terrain, periodically flooded valleys (uedi) with the nature of a rocky plateau. Od wschodu obszar ten jest ograniczony ogromnymi żrebami tektonicznymi Itbay, which stromo opadają ku Morzu Czerwonemu.

The Red Sea is a flooded fissure between the continental massifs of Africa and Asia. On both sides there are chains of desert mountains, and the coast is rocky and rich in coral reefs. More than 800 km of the Red Sea coast belongs to Egypt.

The Sinai Peninsula is mostly desert. There are beaches along the Mediterranean Sea. In the central part of the coast, a narrow land language separates Lake Bardawil from the sea (168 km 2 ), where exotic species of fish live. The southern part of the peninsula is occupied by mountains of volcanic origin with peculiar forms. Their highest peak is Mount Catherine (2642 m).

Lake Nasera is one of the largest artificial lakes in the world. Its area is 5250 km², length 510 km, total capacity is 157 km³, and the depth is as high as 180 m. This lake is in the desert, with sand dunes.