Luxor Temple (South Harem) also called the Temple of the Birth of Amun, is the second most important monument of the eastern bank of Thebes after the temple complex in Karnak.
Formerly it was a testimony to the wealth and power of the Egyptian rulers, many centuries later it served as a military camp (in Roman times) or as a Christian church. It was built mostly by the pharaoh Amenhotep III, which also started the fashion for gigantomania. Over the next years and generations, the temple was expanded by Amenhotep's successors, and it did not get its final shape until the time of Ramesses II.
Ramses placed a great one in front of the entrance, measuring after 65 meters wide of the pyloms, beautifully decorated with battle themed reliefs. It stood in front of the pyloms 6 gigantic statues of the ruler, Queen Nefertari and their daughters Maritamon, of which only three survived, and two high on 25 meters obelisks, one of which was exported in 1833 year to Paris and now stands in Plac Zgody. Behind the pylons there is a large courtyard built by Ramesses II, which is surrounded by numerous colossal statues of this pharaoh with Nefertari reaching up to his knees, and the Hatshepsut Chapel and the Abu Al Hagaga Mosque.
Further behind them you enter the imposing colonnade of Amenhotep III, that is, long, a three-nave room with columns with heads in the shape of unfolded papyrus flowers, at the entrance to which stand two huge statues of Ramses II. On the right wall of the colonnade there are reliefs from the time of Tutankhamun, where the festival of Opet is shown – annual fertility ritual, during which Amon sailed from Karnak to his wife Mut and son Khonsu, residing in the temple in Luxor. Further behind the colonnade is Amenhtep's courtyard, behind which there is a hypostyle hall and the sanctuary dedicated to three Theban deities which is the oldest part of the temple: Amon, Chonsu i Mut.
Behind the Luxor Temple lies the long na 3 km processional avenue, connecting this building with the temple of Karnak. Along the avenue, leading along the Nile, there are sphinxes with ram heads, which were the symbol of the god Amun.