Initially, there was a leisure pavilion on the site of the huge citadel “The Dome of the Winds”, built at the request of Governor Hatim Ibn Harsam in 810 year.
More than 300 years later, w 1176 year, Saladin surrounded the citadel with a defensive wall and made it a real fortress. The Mamluk sultans then made it their headquarters and erected new buildings around it, m.in. palace At-Kasr al-Ablak and debts on 3400 meters of aqueduct.
Over time, the citadel was expanded and eventually became a real city with two districts and numerous civilian buildings, houses and mosques. Especially during the reign of Muhammad Ali, there was rapid development, and it was then that one of the most beautiful Egyptian mosques was built, Muhammad Ali mosque.
For almost 700 years, until Ali's death, the citadel was the official residence of almost all Egyptian rulers. Today it consists of three distinctive parts, each of which is surrounded by a wall with towers and gates, and now only the northern or southern gate can be entered inside. In the citadel, apart from the most famous Cairo mosque, we can also visit numerous museums.
- Carriage Museum – ma 6 royal carriages, including one of gold.
- Army Museum – we will find in it primarily items related to the military ceremony, and less genuine weapons.
- Police Museum – there are, among others. rooms dedicated to the most famous murders and political killings, but excluding the assassination of President Sadat.
- Meczet An-Nasira Muhammada – erected at the beginning of the 14th century by An-Nasir Muhammad. It makes a rather harsh impression, not much is left of the old beautiful decorations and ornamental ceramic tiles.
- Muhammad Ali Mosque – the mosque was built in the style of the Ottoman building of Istanbul. The interior is extremely extensive and richly decorated, and to the right of the main entrance is the tomb of Muhammad.